Fight against Dog Menace

 


Rabies Worldwide

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates 55000 people die annually due to rabies worldwide. About 95% of the human deaths caused by rabies are due to virus transmission through the bites of infected dogs.

Indian Scenario

Dog bite and Rabies Capital of the World


  • Dog attacks in a year: About 17.4 million
  • Rabies deaths in a year: 18000 to 20000
  • Man-eater dogs: About 77 persons have been reportedly killed by pack of stray dogs during 2018
  • Hunting by pack of stray dogs
Dog Attack Cases

According to official estimates, as accepted by the WHO and quoted in medical journals and research papers of many government and private medical facilities, about 17.4 million people suffer dog attacks in India every year. This figure may seem exaggerated at the first instance, but a look at following figures would confirm the overall figure.

Dog bite cases reported by leading news publications. The list / figures are not exhaustive. There may be many more, unreported or not noticed. Additionally, the cases of treatment at private facilities are not reported anywhere.

 



Publication

Date

Place

year

Dog bites in a year

RTI Reply by AMC 27/12/2018 Ahmedabad 2018 60000 (except Civil Hosp.Asarwa)
Times of India 13/12/2018 Rajkot 2017-18 20000
Hindustan Times 08/12/2016 Whole of Rajasthan 2015 2.73 lac
      2016 (Till July) 1.55 lakhs
    Bharatpur   40116
    Alwar   30925
Mid Day 22/03/2018 Mumbai 2017-18 110000
Times of India 22/7/2014 Maharashtra which includes: 2013-14 5.89 lac
    Nashik circle   1.15 lac
    Mumbai circle   83580
    Latur circle   82849
    Aurangabad circle   69701
    Pune circle   66562
    Akola circle   61615

    Aurangabad district   29641
    Jalna   15860
    Parbhani   14995
    Satara   20300
    Kolhapur   16406
    Sangli   14888
    Osmanabad   25029
    Beed   23820
    Nanded   17417
    Latur   16583
    Thane   60179
    Raigad   17500
    Chandrapur   16224
    Wardha   12756
    Nagpur   10525
    Ahmednagar   40739
    Nasik   39984
    Amrawati   26590
    Buldhana   13505
Indian Express 12/08/2016 Thiruvananthapuram   150 daily
The Telegraph 22/4/2014 Ranchi   100-200 daily
Indian Express 09/04/2016 Kerala 2016 31000 in 5 months
Kashmir Observer 13/01/2019 Srinagar (J&K)   15-20 cases per day
Times of India 25/12/2018 Chennai 2017-18 57000
Zee News (PTI) 29/3/2015 Chandigarh   500 per month
Delhi Govt.   Delhi 2017-18 57000
India today 14/09/2018 Bengaluru (BBMP) 2017 3 dog bites per 2 minutes
Times of India 15/01/2019 Uttarakhand 2009-18 3.65 Lac

 

Note: Figures of cases treated at government facilities. Does not include cases when treatment taken at private facilities.

The estimate of 17.4 million victims relates to the year 2011 and has not been revised thereafter. In view of increasing dog population every six months, the current figure is likely to be high.

Unsuspecting children form sizeable part of the victims of stray dog bites as they tend to get attracted and play with cute little puppies inviting attack from their lactating & nursing mother as the bitch fears safety of her pups. This dangerous attraction gets repeated every six months as the bitch can get pregnant every six months.

Dog is the best friend of man’: This saying holds true only for those people who are known to that dog. For unknown person, particularly during night, a dog is as dangerous as any other animal. This can be vouchsafed by any one who has been chased by pack of stray dogs during night.

(ii) Rabies deaths:

Though the dog bites and rabies are world-wide phenomena, India has earned dubious distinction of being a RABIES CAPITAL along with the DOG-BITE CAPITAL of the world. Maximum people in the World, about 18000 to 20000 people, dies of rabies every year in India. This figure is found in the WHO reports, reports of Government of India and reports / research papers of various hospitals in India. With totally uncontrolled dog population rising every six months, the scope for improvement of the situation in near future is zero.

The situation of rabies is more serious in rural areas compared to urban areas due to availability of rabies vaccine and health centres situated at long distances from victim’s location. The lack of awareness about the necessity of taking vaccine in case of dog-bite complicates the situation. Sometime people avoid taking treatment where the wound of dog bite is superfluous. But the saliva of the rabid dog might have entered the body even from a small skin-cut leading to development of rabies after some time-gap. Rabies is fatal once the symptoms develop. It is therefore of utmost importance that the wound be immediately washed with flowing water for at least fifteen minutes with soap and water and the vaccine should be administered as fast as possible.

Man-eater dogs

More horrendous is the fact that about 77 persons have been mauled to death by pack of stray dogs on Indian streets which includes 64 children. Government of India is blissfully unaware about the seriousness of the issue.

Deaths due to attack by pack of stray dogs reported by leading news publications. The list / figures are not exhaustive. There may be many more, unreported or not noticed.

Publication

Date

Place

Killed

Sandesh

9-5-2015

Surat, Gujarat

1/2-year-old girl

Sandesh

13-2-2016

Bhuj, Gujarat

4-month-old kid

Divya Bhaskar

23-5-2015

Olpad, Surat

Girl – 1-year-old

Divya Bhaskar

25-4-2015

Valsad

Girl- 10-year-old

Divya Bhaskar

13-5-2015

Maliya Miyana, Dist. Rajkot

Lady-95-year-old

Times of India

22 Dec 15

Nani Barar, Morbi, Gujarat

Lady- 80-year-old

Guj Samachar

23-02-16

Surat, Gujarat

A youth died by accident while escaping from pack of dogs

Times of India

29-07-17

Nainital

10-year-old girl died after falling while being chased by pack of stray dogs

Indian Express

09-4-2016

Karinkulam, Kerala

Lady- 76-year-old

Times of India

30 Oct.16

Varkala, Kerala

Male- 90-years –old

Times of India

12-1-2016

Bahedi,    Dist. Bareilly, U.P.

6 children killed in 2015

Times of India

12-1-2016

Bareilly, U.P.

67-year-old President’s award winning teacher Ramdas Diwakar

Divya Bhaskar

8 Jun.2015

Jamiyanagar, Delhi

6-year-old Kanha

Times of India

8 Feb 2017

Bhalgamda, Teh. Limbdi, District Surendranagar

2-month-old in a cradle

Indian Express

19 May, 17

Nakhatrana,Kutch

9-year-old girl

Times of India

21-Jan-18

Mumbai,Mah

7-year-old

The Hindu

23-Jan-18

Amarkot, H.P.

5-year-old

The Tribune

26-Jan-18

Khamano,Punjab

new born


Indian Express

26-Jan-18

Bharuch, Guj

1-year-old, in a cradle

Hindustan Times

03-Feb-18

Bhopal, M.P.

18-month-old


Greater Kashmir

06-Feb-18

Wadoora, J&K

6-year-old

Times of India

07-Feb-18

Amreli, Guj

8-year-old

Times of India

12-Feb-18

Lakhimpur, U.P.

10-year-old

Times of India

05-Jul-18

Bhagwanpura Area, Roorkee, Uttarakhand

12-year-old boy, Abjar Ahmad

Times of India

20-May-18

Mehas, Dist. Sangrur, Punjab

7-year-old boy, Manish

Times of India

20-May-18

Bhindran, Sangrur

5-year-old girl

Tribune

18-Jun-18

Chandigarh

1 ½-year-old boy, Ayush

New Indian Express

27 May, 18

Khairabad

18 kids killed over past few months

Thehansindia.com

27 May, 18

Vizianagaram, A.P.

9-year-old boy

Times of India

27 May, 18

Chityala, Kurnool, A.P.

4-year-old boy

UNI

16 June, 18

Balaji Cheruvu Centre, Kakinada, A.P.

6-year-old boy, Vasamsetti Nagendra

The Hindu

9 Sept. 18

Kunigal, Dist. Tumakuru

11-year-old girl, Thejaswini

Epxress News Service

1 Sep. 18

Vibhuthipura, Bangalore

11-year-old boy, Praveen

Epxress News Service

2 Sep. 18

Chikkalsandra, Bangalore

3-year-old girl, Ambika

Free Press Journal

26 Apr. 18

Kutesra, P.S. Charthawal, Muzaffarnagar

6-year-old boy, Akram

Amar Ujala

17 Oct. 18

Chuk Bagla, Ramgarh, Jammu

4-year-old girl, Aahu

The Tribune

17 Dec. 18

Farour, Samrala Civil Hospital, Khamano,Punjab

Youngster

Jagran

25-Jan-19

Palhedi, Panipat – Incident May, 2017

Rotweiller killed its caretaker Maniram and feasted on him

Business Standard

6-Dec-18

Chimyawali, Sambhal, U.P.

4-year-old boy

The Tribune

19-Jan-19

Vill Malkana, Talwandi Sabo, Bathinda

50-year-old, Baru Singh

Amar Ujala

28-Jan-19

Vill Mehas, Nabha, Punjab

10-year-old boy, Dheeraj Kumar

Jagran

25-Jan-19

Chatha, Sirsa, Haryana

2-year-old girl, Arshit

 

India Today

22-5-2017

Thiruvananthapuram

54-year-old Josclin

Ndtv.com

7-6-2016

Gogaon P.S., Khargaone, MP

10-year-old girl, Puja

The News 18

20-8-2016

Thiruvananthapuram

65 year old lady, Sheeluamma

Oneindia.com

22Dec2016

Puri, Orissa

4-year-old Boy, Kanha

India Today

20-Jan-18

Raipur, MP

14-month-old

News 18

12 July, 18

Bareilly, State of Uttar Pradesh

10-year-old boy, Ritik

coastaldigest.com

29 Nov. 18

Panth Balekundri Belagavi

2-year-old boy, Abbas Ali

eSakal.com

27 Nov. 18

Aurangabad

9-year-old, Noormozam Khaled Pinzari

Telanganatoday.com

12 Jan. 19

Khagaznagar

3-year-old girl, Sindhu

Hindi.timesnownews.com

21 Jan. 19

Balichhatra, Mayurbhanj, Ori.

7-year-old, Rinku Mohrana

India Today

22-5-2017

Thiruvananthapuram

54-year-old Josclin

 

India Today

22-5-2017

Pullavia (incident: Aug, 2016)

70-year-old woman

 

Times of India

10-02-2019

Village: Dhurkot Ransih, Moga, Bathinda

7-year-old boy, Harman Singh

Livehindustan.com

12-02-2019

Dehri, Bihar

New Born Child

Times of India

18-12-2018

Ladakh: Saspol and Spituk

2 Woman, 2014 & 2015

DBpost.com

18-12-2018

Gangia, Dasua, Panjab

2 years old boy Manpreet

The Times of India

10-02-2019

Village: Dhurkot Ransih, Moga, Bathinda

7-year-old boy, Harman Singh

Livehindustan.com

12-02-2019

Dehri, Bihar

New born child

The Times of India

18-03-2019

Sitapur, U.P.

5 year-old boy, Priyanshu

India TV / PTI

23-02-2019

Ahmednagar, Maharashtra

3 year-old, Ayush

Mirror Now

08-03-2019

Shahjanpur, U.P.

Abandoned newborn girl

 

It is noted that few packs of feral dogs have become man-eater probably after surviving on refuse from abattoirs.

Health Hazard:

Stray dogs are not only safety-hazard. They are health-hazard also. Stray dogs always remain in unhygienic and unsanitary condition and play in filth. Due to tropical heat in India they find coolness in over-flowing drains and mud. They scavenge dust-bins. They enter big dust-bins and over-turn small dust-bins to find food. Unlike pet dogs, no one remove ticks from them. Their excreta give rises to flies and insects. When poor street children play with stray dogs, they can get ticks and infections leading to diseases like ringworm, roundworm (Toxocariasis), hookworm, tapeworm, giardia or even rabies.

Under the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, many cities and towns are declared as `Open Defecation Free’ (ODF). Even Ahmedabad has been declared as `ODF’. However, every day more than four lac `PRIVILEGED CITIZENS’ (i.e. dogs enjoying protected status under law) make a mockery of ODF claim of the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. The situation is similar across all the cities and towns of India where these protected citizens defecate everywhere, keep on scavenging and upend dustbins throughout the day and night, forage on the waste and spread filth on all the streets and diseases amongst people, particularly children who play with them.

 

Hunting by pack of stray dogs
Incidents of pack of stray dogs preying upon black bucks, blue-bull and chinkaras are also reported. To quote just a few out of a series of such incidents:
  • On 18th December, 2017, the Punjab Kesri reported killing of 3 deers and wounding of 2 blue bulls by pack of stray dogs at Village Mehrana, Abohar.
  • On 21st January, 2013 the News18 reported killing of 38 blackbucks by stray dogs in Kanpur Zoo, who feasted on them.
  • On 26th June, 2018, the Pubjab Kesri reported killing of 26 sheep by pack of stray dogs at village Goudhola, Nuh, Mewat
  • On 1st December, 2018 the Times of India reported killings of 6 black bucks by stray dogs in Kamatibaug zoo of Vadodara.
  • Many cases of hunting of endangered species of deer by pack of stray dogs have been frequently reported from places like Pune, Chattarpur, Betla (Daltonganj), Western Rajasthan, Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary (Telangana), Amrabad Tiger Reserve (Telangana), Nandangatta (Mundgod), University of Hyderabad, IIT-Madras, Guindy Wildlife Sanctuary (Chennai), Marayur sandalwood Forest (near Munnar), Shravasti (UP), Ghatampur (UP), Rajnandgaon (Chhatisgarh), Hazaribagh (Jharkhand), Delhi Zoo, Nachinapatti (Vanakondanmalai reserve forests, TN), Bhulgaon (Barwah, MP), Madukkarai (TN), Meham Deer Sanctuary (Haryana).

  • On 14.8.2017, the livemint.com reported hunting of 55 chinkaras in a span of a month at Sathin and Denok villages of Jodhpur district in western Rajasthan.
  • On 1st Feb, 2019 Times of reported killing of 132 sheep, lambs in a village of Gyanpur area in Bhadohi district of Varanasi by stray dogs
  • On 27th January, 2019 American India Fellowship reported recently preying of snow leopard by stray dogs at Ladakh. Times of India of India has earlier reported ferocious feral dogs threatening the existence of exotic wildlife species at in Leh-Ladakh region by frequent hunting. It is feared that some of the species may become extinct if the menace goes unchecked.

  • On 13th March, 2017, Times of India reported killing of leopard by pack of stray dogs in Bhilangana village of Tehri in Uttarakhand. It also added that the pack had also mauled a tiger earlier.
  • On 17th December 2018, Gujarat Samachar reported killing and eating of a female buffalo and its calf by stray dogs at Hathijan near Ahmedabad.
  • As per news reports of The Wire and the livemint.com, estimated 59 million dogs pose biggest threat to wildlife in the country and have attacked 84 different species of birds, reptiles and mammals.
  • Though humans cannot indulge into hunting of endangered species, dogs can. During September and October, 2018 some 23 Asiatic Lions died in Gir National Park. Few of these lion deaths are attributed to canine distemper. Down to Earth article (Manilal Valliyate, 11 October, 2018) links these deaths to stray dogs.

     

    What the New York Times said on 6th August, 2012 holds true today
  • An extract from the news item titled `Where Streets Are Thronged With Strays Baring Fangs’:

    "No country has as many stray dogs as India, and no country suffers as much from them. Free-roaming dogs number in the tens of millions and bite millions of people annually, including vast numbers of children. An estimated 20,000 people die every year from rabies infections — more than a third of the global rabies toll. … … … Packs of strays lurk in public parks, guard alleyways and street corners and howl nightly in neighborhoods and villages. … …"

Solution: Zero-achievement ABC(D) Programme

 

  • Animal Welfare Board of India:

    The only armour in the armoury of the Government of India in its fight against the dog menace is `Animal Birth Control (Dogs) Programme’ (ABC Programme) which is, in fact is a zero-achievement programme.

    Animal Welfare Board of India has run the ABC Programme through-out India across 90 cities and towns for last about fifteen years.

    The information received through various RTI applications reveal that the programme of ABC run by the AWBI is not successful in reducing dog population at any place in India. The only successful example quoted across India relates to the ABC Programme in Jaipur running since 1997 which started with population of 1800 dogs which can’t be replicated with higher dog population.

    The AWBI has represented before the Supreme Court of India and in the answer given before the Lok Sabha that the ABC Programme can help reduce the stray dog population in India and thus alleviate the misery of the people arising out of stray dog menace. Such representation has eliminated possibility and probability of finding out any other real and effective solution to stray dog menace.

    Notice issued to the AWBI to explain the working and success-if-any of the ABC programme has remained unanswered.

  • Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation

      As per the information received from the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, city of Ahmedabad had dog population of 2.10 lac during the year 2011. The recent RTI reply from the AMC states that the dog population in Ahmedabad is now reduced to 1.48 lac in the year 2018. Remarkably:

    • The AMC got the dog census done in 2018 for gratis.
    • The agency engaged by the AMC for dog-census is also involved in the ABC programme in the city through its associates.
    • When the dog population during 2011 was reported at 2.10 lac, there were dog bite cases of 30000 in a year. Now when the dog population is claimed to be 1.48 lac, the dog bite cases have risen to 60000 in a year during 2018.
Law and court cases

High Courts of Maharashtra, Kerala and Karnataka have passed orders to effectively control the stray dog menace. Subsequent Supreme Court orders under the Animal Birth Control Rules over-ride these orders.

Pronouncements have protected and guaranteed the habitat of stray dogs, like that of any rare & endangered species of animals, not at any protected areas or sanctuaries but right among human population, even at the cost of endangering safety of humans and that is why the Government has ignored scores of killings by stray dogs.

The main matter before the Supreme Court of India, being Special Civil Application No. 691 of 2009 filed by the Animal Welfare Board of India has not been listed for hearing for last more than 18 months. (As on 21st January, 2019)

RELEVANT PROVISIONS OF LAW

Article 21 and Article 47 of the Constitution of India:

Government is duty bound to protect millions of people from stray dog attacks under Article 21 which guarantees safe life and liberty of citizens, and prevent thousands of rabies death under Article 47 which enjoins improvement of Public Health as primary duty of the State.

While giving effect to Article 47 in the case of one PIL, Murli Deora v Union of India and Ors, [(2001)8 SCC 765], the Hon’ble Supreme Court prohibited smoking in public places in the entire country on the grounds that smoking is injurious to health of passive smokers and issued directions to the Union of India, State Governments as well as the Union Territories to take effective steps to ensure prohibiting smoking in all public places. Crores of stray dogs attacking millions of people is much more dangerous than smokers on the streets.

  • Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960

    Above Act, as the name suggests, aims to prevent cruelty to animals. However, Section 11 recognizes exception of stray dogs and makes provision accordingly. Section 11 already factors in the menace caused or likely to caused by the stray dogs.

  • Gujarat Police Act, 1951

    Section 44 and Section 106 of the Act also recognizes the menace being caused or likely to be caused by stray dogs and provides for effective control of stray dogs from the streets.

    Failure of the administration to implement Constitutional and Statutory safeguards against the stray dogs menace has resulted in sufferings of millions of people due to dog attacks, deaths of thousands of people due to rabies and killing of several poor children in India.

  • Violation of Human Rights

    This has led to a situation of gross violation of human rights, as the State offers zero protection against dog attacks and killings.

  • Uttarakhand High Court order on stray dogs

    “WPPIL No.84 of 2017

    Hon’ble V.K. Bist, J.

    Hon’ble Alok Singh, J.

    Mr. Gopal K. Verma, Advocate for the petitioner.

    Mr. Paresh Tripathi, learned Chief Standing Counsel for the State of Uttarakhand/respondent nos.1 to 6.

    Heard learned counsel for the parties.

    Following important issue has been framed by the petitioner in the present public interest petition: “Whether the life of citizen is important than the stray dogs and whether the State authorities are duty bound/responsible for protecting/saving the life of the public of the State from the dog biting of stray dogs.” It is submitted by the learned counsel for the petitioner that during last five years, more than eleven thousand cases of dog biting have come into light. It is also submitted that due to dogs biting several persons have died also.

    It is further submitted by the petitioners that in various places, the children, old persons and ladies are afraid of going to road due to furious dogs.

    Learned Chief Standing Counsel submits that this work is to be done by the respective municipal bodies but considering the importance of the matter, we direct the Chief Secretary of the State to issue necessary directions to all concerned for taking appropriate steps in this regard.

    It is made clear that the direction issued by the Chief Secretary of the State will be binding on all the authorities including municipal bodies and local bodies. First of all, the concerned authority will determine the number of stray dogs in every town, city and village. Necessary arrangements shall be made for construction of shelter house in every place. The State Government may consider for making law regarding killing of dangerous stray dogs.

    Learned Chief Standing Counsel has supplied the instructions, which are taken on record. He submits that some steps have already been taken by the Government.

    Having considered the submissions, we further direct that the State Government shall issue an advertisement in the newspaper having wide circulation in the State of Uttarakhand asking general public and also non-Government organizations, who are interested in the matter, to come forward and to take such stray dogs with them, if they are against the idea of shelter.

    It is to be ensured that no stray dog should be found on road after a period of six months. Such dogs should be kept inside shelter house. The municipal and local authorities will also verify from each and every house whether their dogs are registered with municipal board and if they found that the dogs are not registered they would ensure the registration as per law.

    In view of the importance of the matter which has drawn the concern of this Court, we direct that non-compliance of the direction issued by the Chief Secretary, to the subordinate officers, including municipal bodies and local bodies would be treated as contempt of this Court’s order. Immediate steps must be taken by the Chief Secretary in this regard. List this case on 16.07.2018 as part heard matter. By that time, a short affidavit be filed by the Chief Secretary stating therein about the action taken/to be taken by him in this regard. (Alok Singh, J.) (V.K. Bist, J.) 14.06.2018 ”
  • Supreme Court is also aware about the gravity of the situation as it gets reflected in the order dated 30.11.2015.

    “S U P R E M E     C O U R T     O F     I N D I A”

    Writ Petition (Civil) No.808/2015

    ALUVA JANASEVA @ JANASEVA SISUBHAVAN Petitioner(s)

    THROUGH ITS SECRETARY

     

    VERSUS

     

    UNION OF INDIA AND OTHERS Respondent(s)

     

    Date: 30/11/2015

     

    CORAM:

     

    HON'BLE MR. JUSTICE DIPAK MISRA HON'BLE MR. JUSTICE PRAFULLA C. PANT O R D E R Heard Mr. V.K. Biju, learned counsel for the petitioner. It is submitted by him that though he has filed I.A. No.2 of 2015 in Writ Petition (Civil) No.599 of 2015, which relates to protection from stray dogs on the foundation that the lives of human beings are to be saved, for they cannot be allowed to become prey to the stray dogs, yet he has been compelled to prefer an independent writ petition at the instance of the petitioner-Association as it has been found that in the meantime many children have been affected by bite of stray dogs. He has brought on record certain newspaper clippings which show that the children have been bitten by the stray dogs and have suffered serious injuries. Learned counsel would submit that there has to be protection for the children from the stray dogs because children become easy and innocent targets for these kind of dogs. In essence, the submission of Mr. V.K. Biju is that there has to be implementation of Sections 9(f) and 11(3)(b)(c) of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 and Section 438 of Kerala Municipality Act, 1994. Appreciating the submission that the children are fundamental embodiment of human race and they deserve protection from any kind of attack by the stray dogs, we are inclined to issue notice. Issue notice on the writ petition, as also on the prayer for interim relief. The Registry is directed to fix a returnable date within four weeks.”
  • A Letter-Petition has been submitted to the Supreme Court of India on 15th February, 2019, a text of which can be read. Click here to Read

  • The most revealing report of Justice S. Siri Jagan Committee on stray dog menace in Kerala submitted to the Supreme Court has got buried under the bulky papers of various petitions. Similar situation prevails in other states too. Click here to Read

Law and Practice in civilized nations

In no developed country dogs are allowed to roam freely on the streets, thereby leading to attack on men, women, children and aged persons, at times, even fatally. Most of the developed countries are almost free from stray dog-bites and rabies incidents are rare, whereas in India dog-bites cases happen in millions with thousands of rabies cases. Apart from the problem of danger and safety, these developed countries also consider the problem of scavenging by stray dogs and disposition of excreta near or in areas inhabited by people as serious health and environment/ contamination issues. Such issues have never been given any prominence or importance in India. Coupled with low public sanitation, the least that can be done is to salvage a bad situation from getting worse. More so, considering the fact that one-third of the Indian population belongs to the poor class and need healthier environment to save themselves from contagious and viral diseases.

  • In the United States of America, the concept of public health has played an important role in the development of myriad constitutional doctrines. When the U.S. Constitution was drafted, epidemics of infectious diseases like smallpox and yellow fever wreaked a periodic devastation on the American states. In response to these diseases, as well as more common endemic infections, cities and states undertook a variety of legal measures. They instituted quarantines, provided medical aid for the poor and periodically ordered the cleaning of filthy urban centres. States and cities sought to fulfil what was then viewed as the government’s essential obligations under the social contract to protect the `Peace, Safety and public good’ of the people of America. In a decision of 2005, in the case of Greater Chicago Combine & Centre, Inc. vs. City of Chicago, the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit upheld a city ban on owning pigeons in residential neighbourhoods, in part because it was at least “…plausible that feeding and maintaining pigeons in backyard coops would increase the public health risks posed by rodents and disease.”
  • It would be worthwhile to note that large parts of Western, Northern and Central Europe are officially recognized as free from terrestrial rabies. The 2007 report titled Stray Animal Control Practices (Europe) brought out by World Society for Protection of Animals (WSPA) and Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals International (RSPCA International) is enlightening. The report deals with stray control measures like neutering, euthanasia, its effectiveness, population of strays etc. in thirty countries of Europe and Eurasia. However, it is interesting to note that out of the thirty countries surveyed, only one country, Greece has a practice, like in India, of releasing the stray dogs after neutering. The report notes that this approach was reported to be problematic because it appeared to result in owners “dumping” their dogs in areas “where they knew they would be looked after”. In the report, Greece is country with an on-going problem of stray dogs, though only 30% of the total dogs are stray dogs whereas 70% dogs in Greece are privately owned.
Parliament Question on Dog Menace

Government of India is well aware about the dog menace as per the answer given in the Parliament, still miserably failed to take anyeffective steps. To Read answer CLICK HERE

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